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14-Feb-2021 07:11

The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is divided between several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" (καύ-: καύαξ, καύηξ, ηκος ο, κήξ, κηϋξ "a kind of seagull" the reconstructed *κάσος η "mountain" or "rock" richly attested both in place and personal names.) According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A.The Transcaucasus extends eastwards to the Caspian Sea and northwestern Iran, and extends westwards into northeastern Turkey. Nehring, the Ancient Greek word Καύκασος (Kafkasos) is connected to Gothic Hauhs ("high") as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas ("hillock") and Kaukarà ("hill, top").The Transcaucasus region and southern Dagestan were the furthest points of Persian Parthian and later Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus range practically impregnable.The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region, making the Caucasus the highest limit of the world.These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including Media, the Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, and the Sassanid Empire, who would altogether rule the Caucasus for many hundreds of years.In 95–55 BC under the reign of Armenian king of kings Tigranes the Great, the Kingdom of Armenia became an empire, growing to include: Kingdom of Armenia, vassals Iberia, Albania, Parthia, Atropatene, Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, Nabataean kingdom, and Judea.By the time of the first century BC, Zoroastrianism had become the dominant religion of the region; however, the region would go through two other religious transformations.

Later ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis and Iberia, among others.As the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia (an eponymous branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia) was the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion (in 301 AD), and Caucasian Albania and Georgia had become Christian entities, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism and pagan beliefs.With the Muslim conquest of Persia, large parts of the region came under the rule of the Arabs, and Islam penetrated into the region.The peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians.Twelver Shi'ism has many adherents in the southeastern part of the region, in Azerbaijan which extends into Iran.

Later ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis and Iberia, among others.

As the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia (an eponymous branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia) was the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion (in 301 AD), and Caucasian Albania and Georgia had become Christian entities, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism and pagan beliefs.

With the Muslim conquest of Persia, large parts of the region came under the rule of the Arabs, and Islam penetrated into the region.

The peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians.

Twelver Shi'ism has many adherents in the southeastern part of the region, in Azerbaijan which extends into Iran.

In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, and Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area.