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] titulos in urbe Româ divisit presbyteris …"; and again: "Hic [Dionysius, 259-268] presbyteris ecclesias dedit et cymeteria et paroccias diocesis constituit"; and elsewhere: "[Marcellus, 308-309] XXV titulos in urbe Româ constituit quasi diocesis propter baptismum et pœnitentiam multorum qui convertebantur ex paganis et propter sepulturas martyrum" (op cit., ed. In other words, an ecclesiastical division of the city for various parochial purposes is attributed to popes of the second and third centuries. 3, 4, 5 (Roman Synod under Pope Stephen III, 760), D. However, not all the numerous priests attached to these titular churches were known as cardinales, but, in keeping with the then current use of cardinalis as the equivalent of principalis (see above), only the first priest in each such church–let us say the archipresbyter. The above-mentioned Johannes Diaconus describes as follows the manner in which these eighteen cardinal-deacons assisted at the papal Mass: "In quibusdam vero dominicis et festivis diebus sanctorumque præcipue sollemnitatibus quandoque sacerdos est regalis et imperialis episcopus, immo patriarcha; et idem apostolicus in supradicto sacratissimo altare Salvatoris huius Lateranensis basilicæ missam debet celebrare; et quando celebrat dominus papa sancti Petri vicarius … Of course, the pope can occasionally dispense from these disqualifying conditions (Archiv für kath. cardinals takes place in a secret consistory, during which those actually resident in Rome are informed of their nomination. The "Liber Pontificalis" describes as follows this quasi-parochial system of ancient Rome : "Hic [Euaristus, 99-107? The chief source of this enlargement of their number was the addition of the six diaconi palatini and their archdeacon, i.e., the ecclesiastical officers whose duty it was to serve in turn during the week at the papal Mass ( "Liber Pontificalis", I, 364 7 , 504 70 , 509 110 , and II, 18 74 , 252 7 ; Duchesne, "Les régions de Rome au moyen-âge", in "Mélanges d'archéologie et d'hist.", X, 144). Lacensis", Freiburg, 1890–VIII, 838; Granderath -Kirsch, "Gesch. In keeping with the provisions for promotion to nobility, illegitimates, even when legitimated by later marriage, are ineligible (ibid., § 12), also (ibid., § 16) the fathers of (living) legitimate children, nephews or cardinals, and (ibid., §§ 17, 18) those who are related to a cardinal in the first or second degree of consanguinity. Until late in the Middle Ages the title of cardinal was given to prominent priests of important churches, e.g., at Constantinople, Milan, Ravenna, Naples, Sens, Trier, Magdeburg, and Cologne (cf. Phillips, Kirchenrecht, Ratisbon, 1845 sq., VI, 41 sqq.; P. Under Benedict II (684-85) we meet with monasteria diaconiæ . It is customary for the governments of the same nations to contribute at the creation of such a cardinal the incident "taxes" or expenses (2832 scudi, or about 00). At the end of the sixth century Gregory the Great had eighteen deacons. According to an ancient concession the wishes of Austria, Spain, and Portugal are as far as possible respected, when there is question of raising to the cardinalate a bishop of one of these nations, known thenceforth as a crown-cardinal. They also followed the custom, widespread in the early medieval period, of dealing with the important questions in synodal meetings. Creation of cardinals in petto is therefore without effect, unless there follows publication of the names. Pius IX announced (15 March, 1875) a creation of cardinals in petto with publication of their names in his testament, but this creation never went into effect. from the end of the Western Schism, during which there were many cardinals created by the contending popes, it became customary for the pope to create cardinals without declaring their names ( creati et reservati in pectore ), the Italian equivalent for which is in petto . Eubel, "Zur Kardinalsernennung des Dominicus Capranica", in "Röm. By virtue of canonical obedience the pope could compel an unwilling person to accept the cardinalitial dignity. But the cardinal must swear that he will defend conscientiously the papal Bulls concerning non-alienation of the possessions of the Roman Church , nepotism, and papal elections, likewise his own cardinalitial dignity. The violation of this law entails grave penalties, even the loss of the cardinalitial dignity (C.

Of the latter there remain only their number, seven, consecrated by antiquity and their dignity. According to the demand of the reform-councils ( Constance, Basle) and the decrees of the Council of Trent (Sess. i), there should be in the college representatives of all Christian nations. 1.] It became the usual designation of every priest belonging to a central or episcopal church, an ecclesiastical cardo (Lat. Hic statuit ut omni dominico die a septem episcopis cardinalibus ebdomadariis, qui in ecclesiâ Salvatoris observant, missarum sollemnia super altare beati Petri celebraretur et Gloria in excelsis Deo diceretur" (I, 478), i.e., the pope, as a diligent custodian of tradition ordered that every Sunday solemn Mass should be said on the altar of St. Only, at whatever time such publication takes place, the cardinals so created rank in seniority according to the date of their original announcement as reserved in petto, and precede all those created after that time (P. Kirsch, "Die Reservatio in petto bei der Kardinalscreation", in "Archiv. 17 in VI to de electione, I, 6; Council of Trent, Sess. Rom.", V, 604 sqq.; Innocent X, "Cum juxta", 19 Feb., 1646, in "Bullar. Similarly, they would lose all the benefices possessed by them (Council of Trent, Sess. The "suburbicarian" bishops, however, by ancient custom reside at Rome. The "Liber Pontificalis" says of Stephen III (768-772): "Erat enim hisdem præfatus beatissimus præsul ecclesiæ traditionis observator. The publication of the names may, in given circumstances, be made at a much later date. It is the duty of the cardinals to assist the pope at the chief liturgical services known as capellæ papales, to distinguish them from the capellæ cardinaliciæ, at which the pope is not present; also to counsel him and aid in the government of the Church (c. 2, X, de clerico non residente, III, 4; Leo X, "Supernæ", 5 May, 1514, § 28, in "Bullar. It is otherwise with foreign bishops created cardinals; they retain their dioceses and are not obliged to reside at Rome. In this way there arose in each of the regions an edifice ( diaconia ) for the reception of the poor, and close by a church. Haller, "Papsttum und Kirchenreform" (Berlin, 1903 sqq.).] In the nomination of cardinals the pope has always been, and is still, free. cit., I, 148), i.e., he divided the "regions" among the deacons and created seven subdeacons whom he placed over the notaries, that the latter might collect with fidelity and completeness the acts of the martyrs ; he also commanded many buildings to be put up in the cemeteries. Valois, "La France et le grand schisme d'Occident" (Paris, 1902), and J.

Of the latter there remain only their number, seven, consecrated by antiquity and their dignity. According to the demand of the reform-councils ( Constance, Basle) and the decrees of the Council of Trent (Sess. i), there should be in the college representatives of all Christian nations. 1.] It became the usual designation of every priest belonging to a central or episcopal church, an ecclesiastical cardo (Lat. Hic statuit ut omni dominico die a septem episcopis cardinalibus ebdomadariis, qui in ecclesiâ Salvatoris observant, missarum sollemnia super altare beati Petri celebraretur et Gloria in excelsis Deo diceretur" (I, 478), i.e., the pope, as a diligent custodian of tradition ordered that every Sunday solemn Mass should be said on the altar of St. Only, at whatever time such publication takes place, the cardinals so created rank in seniority according to the date of their original announcement as reserved in petto, and precede all those created after that time (P. Kirsch, "Die Reservatio in petto bei der Kardinalscreation", in "Archiv. 17 in VI to de electione, I, 6; Council of Trent, Sess. Rom.", V, 604 sqq.; Innocent X, "Cum juxta", 19 Feb., 1646, in "Bullar. Similarly, they would lose all the benefices possessed by them (Council of Trent, Sess. The "suburbicarian" bishops, however, by ancient custom reside at Rome. The "Liber Pontificalis" says of Stephen III (768-772): "Erat enim hisdem præfatus beatissimus præsul ecclesiæ traditionis observator. The publication of the names may, in given circumstances, be made at a much later date. It is the duty of the cardinals to assist the pope at the chief liturgical services known as capellæ papales, to distinguish them from the capellæ cardinaliciæ, at which the pope is not present; also to counsel him and aid in the government of the Church (c. 2, X, de clerico non residente, III, 4; Leo X, "Supernæ", 5 May, 1514, § 28, in "Bullar. It is otherwise with foreign bishops created cardinals; they retain their dioceses and are not obliged to reside at Rome. In this way there arose in each of the regions an edifice ( diaconia ) for the reception of the poor, and close by a church. Haller, "Papsttum und Kirchenreform" (Berlin, 1903 sqq.).] In the nomination of cardinals the pope has always been, and is still, free. cit., I, 148), i.e., he divided the "regions" among the deacons and created seven subdeacons whom he placed over the notaries, that the latter might collect with fidelity and completeness the acts of the martyrs ; he also commanded many buildings to be put up in the cemeteries. Valois, "La France et le grand schisme d'Occident" (Paris, 1902), and J. It is only since the beginning of the twelfth century that the cardinalitial dioceses were finally fixed as the seven in the immediate vicinity of Rome, hence suburbicaria : Ostia, Porto, Santa Rufina (Silva Candida), Albano, Sabina, Tusculum (Frascati), Præneste ( Palestrina ). During the Western Schism their number increased, inasmuch as each of the contending claimants created his own college of cardinals. Hübler, "Die Konstanzer Reformation und die Konkordate von 1418", Leipzig, 1867, 128). They are called for the purpose of giving the red hat to new cardinals, the solemn conclusion of canonizations, and public audiences to sovereigns and their ambassadors. As already described, it was in them that during the Middle Ages were heard and decided the numberless lawsuits and judicial matters that came before the Apostolic See. Luchaire, "Le tribunal d'Innocent III", in "Séances et travaux de l'Acad. With the transfer of their judicial attributes to the great curial offices, especially the Rota and the Roman Congregations, consistories became less frequent. The following matters are dealt with in them, and call for the counsel of the cardinals: the creation, i.e.